Develop a strategy for risk communication and community engagement to support a successful contact tracing initiative.
Contact tracing can only succeed if people accept it as an effective measure and participate when appropriate. (See Vital Strategies Tips to Improve COVID-19 Control Through Better Case and Contact Follow-up)
The SECURE framework, outlined below, offers an effective risk communication and community engagement strategy. (See Vital Strategies Communication Guidance for COVID-19 Contact Tracing for more information)
1.a Support contact tracing corps and skilled contact tracers with training and other needs.
Contact tracers need to be skilled, experienced, and well-trained for the risk communication issues specific to COVID-19.
This will ensure that people who engage with contact tracers feel supported and protected and receive empathetic, culturally appropriate engagement in an accessible language.
1.b Engage community leaders.
Identify people that communities trust, build relationships with them, and enlist them as validators of your contact tracing messages. (See Vital Strategies Engaging Communities in Contact Tracing During the COVID-19 Pandemic for more information)
This may include faith and ethnic group leaders, community leaders, business leaders, leaders within vulnerable populations, teachers, or public officials, among others.
Jurisdictions should engage community leaders by:
Establishing a mechanism for feedback to refine messaging and tactics
Sharing communication plans and approaches
Sharing official fact sheets and other communication tools
Encouraging them to participate in press briefings
Encouraging and supporting them to share official public health notifications, recommendations and other messages with their communities. Community leaders can use existing communication channels (such as social media and email newsletters); new channels can be established as appropriate
1.c Communicate widely via public information campaigns, using mass media, web sites and digital media to explain contact tracing and its impact.
Engage journalists and consider journalist trainings to ensure journalists understand the program and are reporting factual and timely information.
Use mass media and digital communication campaigns to build awareness on how contact tracing is helping us all get to a better tomorrow and build trust in contact tracing for the most affected communities. (See Vital Strategies Talking Points on Contact Tracing for Public Health Leadership Speaking to the Media and COVID-19 Contact Tracing Communication Toolkit for more information)
Official health department social media handles, such as on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, among others, should be used to amplify messaging.
Consider communications campaigns that explain the contact tracing and testing process and how personal information is protected.
Consider running an “answer your phone” campaign that shows the importance of answering calls and engaging honestly with contact tracing staff.
Inform the public about contact tracing at COVID-19 testing sites. (See Vital Strategies Contact Tracing Information Flyer for Use at Test Sites)
1.d Understand risk communication principles and apply them.
Express empathy often. COVID-19 is scary, and spokespeople should acknowledge that. People may find it invasive to consider sharing information about who they’ve been in contact with. Be sure to empathize with the public about the downsides of contact tracing, while reminding people of the benefits to their family, neighbors, friends and communities.
Communication that expresses empathy, is credible, provides anticipatory guidance, promotes action, and shows respect will help build trust.
1.e Respect confidentiality.
Communication on every level needs to address and allay public concerns about privacy and confidentiality.
1.f Evaluate and improve communication efforts
Assess what’s working and what’s not working to improve communication messages and strategies. (See Vital Strategies Measures to Improve COVID-19 Response: End-to-End Quality Improvement of COVID-19 Testing, Case Investigation and Contact Tracing)
2.a Determine messages and channels for relaying messages to cases, contacts and health care providers.
Support cases and contacts while in isolation and quarantine to ensure they have the information needed to stay safe and adhere to public health recommendations. (See National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Encouraging Participation and Cooperation in Contact Tracing: Lessons from Survey Research)
Share new information on the COVID-19 situation in the area.
Reiterate and update on health and safety recommendations.
Link to information sources, including official websites, press briefings and hotline.
Consider using email or text messages for sharing messages (or digital apps as relevant).
Provide fact sheets, FAQs and other educational resources
Target messages to specific audiences, including COVID-19 cases and contacts, high-risk communities such as long-term care facilities and group homes, and health care providers and hospitals.
Make materials available in multiple languages according to local needs.
Send notifications to health care providers when there are changes to procedures or policies relating to provision of health care, laboratory testing, treatments, or vaccines.
Consider using Facebook Messenger to locate and communicate with cases and contacts. (See Vital Strategies Using Facebook to Help Locate People With or At Risk for COVID-19)
2.b Consider establishing messages and procedures for community notifications of exposure.
Notifications should include messaging in line with CDC public health recommendations for community-related exposure:
Be alert for symptoms
Watch for fever, cough, or shortness of breath
Take temperature if symptoms develop
Practice social distancing
Maintain 6 feet of distance from others
Stay out of crowded places
Follow CDC or local health department guidance if symptoms develop
Establish a centralized mechanism to manage communication.
Depending on the size of the jurisdiction and communication needs, a small team may be needed to support the various activities and coordinate with external stakeholders (e.g., community leaders, media outlets).
The centralized mechanism should be linked with health department staff responsible for monitoring and analyzing the epidemic science and situation. This will ensure communications are accurate and up-to-date.
Develop a plan and materials for advocating for the necessary resources for a contact tracing program.
Prepare materials that make the case, and advocate for funding with policymakers to support contact tracing activities.
Vital Strategies: Tips to Improve COVID-19 Control Through Better Case and Contact Follow-up
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Encouraging Participation and Cooperation in Contact Tracing: Lessons from Survey Research
Vital Strategies: Using Facebook to Help Locate People With or At Risk for COVID-19
Vital Strategies: Communication Guidance for COVID-19 Contact Tracing
Vital Strategies: Contact Tracing Information Flyer for Use at Test Sites
Vital Strategies: COVID-19 Contact Tracing Communication Toolkit
Vital Strategies: COVID-19 Contact Tracing Campaign Test
Vital Strategies: Engaging Communities in Contact Tracing During the COVID-19 Pandemic